Fighting against POLLUTION to Save Environment
A Suggested protocol on survey and preparation of waste management plan for industrial estate:
Encology ,10 (8), 8-12, January, 1996.

Pollution problems in the industrial estates are of urgent concern today. With growing public awareness there is increasing pressure on the concerned authorities for taking up waste management actions to ameliorate pollutional problems. In addition to effective consent management under the provisions of existing pollution control laws, industrial estate surveys are required specifically to develop waste management plan for its systematic implementation over a period of time as planned activity with adequate outlays.

Attempt has been made in the present paper to suggest typical protocol describing the scope of work for undertaking industrial estate surveys leading to formulation of waste management plans.

(a) To assess the Environmental impact (from pollution angle) of an Estate.
(b) To study the selected industrial estate(s), in detail, with a view to assess the pollutional load - air, water, hazardous wastes.
(c) To develop Management Plan to deal with pollutional loads and preparation of block estimates for required outlays.


(a) detailed map of the Estate

(b) locating the various industries.

indicate in the map existing waste water discharge location(s), receiving water body

indicate in the map wind direction pattern

Indicate in the map residential areas, recreation areas, drinking water sources, agricultural lands, likely to be affected by the pollutants discharged/emitted/disposed off by the industries in the Estate.

Prepare an inventory of the industries, categorise them in respect of products. List the raw materials used (tpd) and products manufactured (tpd).

collect consents/authorisations - under Water Act. 1974; Air Act, 1981 and Environment (P) Act, 1986 and Rules made there under, issued to the industries, if any.

check the adequacy of treatment devices/ unit provided to meet the standards, (it is unlikely that it will be adequate).

check whether the discharge will meet EPA standards (Table 1).

select from each category of industry' representative sample units, collect generated and discharged waste waters, analyse for relevent parameters, extrapolate and estimate the pollutional load (water) and indicate it spatially in a map of the Estate.

Collect samples of the present outfall(s) and analyse for relevant parameters and compare with the interpreted value of the

Table 1 : Inlet Effluent Quality Standards for CETP

Parameter  Concentration
   pH  5.5 - 9.0
   Temperature ,C 45
   Oil and Grease 20
   Phenolic compounds (C6H50H) 5.0
   Ammonical nitrogen (as N) 50
   Cyanide (as CN)  2.0
   Hexavalent chromium (as CR+6) 2.0
   Total Chromium (as CR) 2.0
   Copper (as Cu) 3.0
   Lead (as Pb) 1.0
   Nickel (Ni) 3.0
   Zinc (as Zn) 15.0
   Arsenic (as AS) 0.2
   Mercury (as Hg) 0.01
   Cadmium (as Cd) 1.0
   Selenium (as Se) 0.05
   Fluoride (as F) 15.0
   Boron (as B) 2.0
   Radioactive materials  
   Alpha emitters, Hc/ml 10-7
   Beta emitters, Hc/ml  10-8

Concentration in mg/1 except pH, Temperature and Radioactive materials

Note :-
1.These standards apply to the small scale industries, i.e. total discharge upto 25 kL/ day.
2. For each CETP and its constituent units, the State Board will prescribe standards as per the local needs and conditions; these can be more stringent than those prescribed above. However, in case of clusters of units, the State Boards with concurrenceof CPCB in writing, may prescribe suitable limits.

Source : The Gazette of India; Extraordinary -Part II - Sec. 3(i) pp 10, dated 27th Feb. 1991.

extrapolated individual loads already determined. Also cross check with calculation made on factors available (e.g. WHO publications/CPCB publications).

Examine the waste waters in respect of their content in the context of Table 2 and determine if any toxic waste is to be excluded from proposed CETP(S).

It is unlikely that there will be any air pollution control devices in the SSI units in the Estate. Check the height of Stacks for compliance with prescribed standards. Check in respect of quantum of fuel burnt are as per consent. Obtain information on types of fuel, types of burners, furnaces, boilers, thermopacks etc. Estimate total emissions, S02, SPM, Lead, NOx, Chlorine, acid mist, Hydrogen Sulphide etc. (tpd).

Check for any authorisations issued under EP Act. Inspect those industries, estimate the hazardous waste generated, determine the type of waste (23 category under EP Act). It is unlikely that the SSI units would have attracted attention in this regard. Individually they all may be less than regulatory quantity. But collectively may be large enough requiring attention. Estimate the total load, category-wise, Spatially indicate, in the map of the Estate - the individual generations.